6G Radio Technologies


6G Radio will be targeted for covering many area that is not covered by the current technology or doing the similar thing as current technology in more advanced way. For those new features and implementation, 6G radio would incorporated many component technologies as described in this note.


Since nothing is clearly determined about specific radio technologies to be used for 6G implementation. I would just keep consolidating various ideas from different sources in this note.




Research Areas on 6G Radio Technlogy


Following illustration is based on the contents from Roadmap to 6G (Next G Alliance).




<  6G technology platform will require a new air interface design >


Image Source : Why and what you need to know about 6G in 2022 - Qualcomm (2022)




Main focus on TeraHz Communication


Key areas for developing end-to-end THzCom systems can be summarized in illustration as follows focusing on physical, link, and network layers. (NOTE : You see a specific name of the technology like Graphene, IRS etc, but we don't know yet which specific techology will be employeed in real 6G implementation. Take these specific name just as a candidate for future implementation).


Source : Terahertz Communications for 6G and Beyond Wireless Networks


Frequency Spectrum:

  • THzCom utilizes the terahertz frequency band, which is located between the microwave and infrared bands.
  • The THz band offers huge available bandwidths that can support data rates up to one terabit per second (Tb/s), which is 100 times that of 5G.
  • The entire THz band is divided into ultra-wideband transmission windows (TWs) and absorption coefficient peak regions (ACPRs).


Antenna Technology:

  • THzCom requires new antenna designs that can operate at higher frequencies and provide high gain and directivity.
  • Beamforming techniques are necessary to overcome the high path loss in the THz band.

    NOTE : Just in terms of high level terminology (e.g, Beam Forming, Array Antenna etc) there wouldn't be much differences between 5G antenna technology and Thz antenna technology. But it is definitely more challenging to implment THz antenna. Refer to this note regarding some of the challenges with the implementation of Thz Antenna.


Other Enabling Technologies:

  • Other 6G-enabling technologies such as artificial intelligence (AI), machine learning (ML), and IRS(Intellegent Reflective Surface) can be integrated into THzCom to enhance its performance.
  • The integration of these technologies can help address challenges such as security, interference management, and energy efficiency.




Building Blocks of 6G Radio Hardware


The building blocks of 6G Radio (actually any kind of digital communication radio) can be summarized as follows (this is based on [1]).  Since these building blocks are mostly implemented by hardware electronics, you would find more detailed information from the note : 6G Electronics.



NOTE : In such a high frequency like sub Thz or Thz, the Antenna System may be integrated with Lenses or other reflective structures.







[1] Terahertz Band Communication: An Old Problem Revisited and Research Directions for the Next Decade

[2] Roadmap to 6G

[3] Terahertz Communications for 6G and Beyond Wireless Networks: Challenges, Key Advancements, and Opportunities (2022)

[4] Toward a 6G AI-Native Air Interface(2021)

[5] Overview of Prospects for Service-Aware Radio Access towards 6G Networks (2022)

[6] Why and what you need to know about 6G in 2022 - Qualcomm (2022)

[7] Terahertz Reconfigurable Intelligent Surfaces (RISs) for 6G Communication Links - 2022

[8] Deliverable D2.3 Radio models and enabling techniques towards ultra-high data rate links and capacity in 6G - Hera X

[9] The Generalization of Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing With Subcarrier Power Modulation to Quadrature Signal Constellations