Neuro Science  





Strange Brain

Most of the contents in this note is not from my own investigation. I write this note just to share the contents of a sequals of YouTube video which I found very interesting. It was interesting because the symptoms presented in them gives importants insights on some aspects of how our brain works.

These cases in the videos illustrate how slight faults in the brain's mechanics can dramatically alter one's experience of time, reality and a certain type of behavior. The video underscores the brain's complex role in orchestrating our sense of time and reality, and depicts how disruptions to its functioning can lead to profound, life-altering consequences. This insight is invaluable for understanding the intricate connections between neurological functioning and our perception of time and reality.


The way I prepare this note is quite different from other notes. For this note, I thought the technology would do better than I do. This is how I wrote the most part of this note :

  • Watch the full contents of YouTube video myself
    • NOTE : This is essential since there are a lot of visual material that cannot be shared by the summary and also some details not captured by summary. If you skip this step, nothing would go through your brain... it would just go through YouTube and directly through AI. Then, AI would learn but you would not :)
  • Get the transcript from YouTube (As of 2023, YouTube provide the built-in function to generate the transcript for the video)
  • Copy the transcribe, save it into a text file. Paste the text file into chatGPT (GPT 4) and requested summary (NOTE : If you do not subscribe chatGPT paid version, you may try it with claude ai.)



Losing Reality


This video discusses various brain disorders that distort perceptions of reality. It highlights cases where individuals experience hallucinations, misidentifications, and challenges in recognizing familiar objects or people due to brain damage or neurological conditions.

Philip Hornby's Case: Despite perfect vision, Philip struggles to identify objects he looks at, like animals in a zoo. This results from neurological damage sustained in a car accident.

  • Car Accident Aftermath: The difficulties began after Philip suffered brain damage in a car accident.
  • Difficulty in Object Identification: His condition specifically affects his ability to recognize and identify objects, particularly living things like animals.
  • Neurological Basis: The condition is rooted in damage to certain areas of the brain responsible for object recognition, not in his vision itself.
  • Impact on Daily Life: This unique condition significantly affects Philip's daily interactions and activities, as he cannot rely on visual recognition in the same way most people do.

Charles Hudson's Experience: After a head injury, Charles displays symptoms of confabulation, where he invents stories to fill memory gaps, leading to a distorted perception of his past and achievements.

  • Confabulation Symptoms: He exhibits confabulation, where he creates fabricated stories and memories to fill gaps in his actual memory.
  • Distorted Personal History: This condition leads him to believe in a distorted version of his past, including false achievements and experiences.
  • Challenges in Reality Perception: Charles's condition complicates his ability to distinguish between real memories and fabricated ones, affecting his grasp of reality.
  • Impact on Self-Identity: His confabulation significantly influences his sense of self and his interactions with others, as he navigates a world shaped by his altered perceptions.

Kathy Waxman's Condition: Kathy lives with Capgras syndrome, believing her husband of 31 years, Sheldon, has been replaced by an imposter. Her condition results from a perception disorder, not memory issues.

  • Belief in Imposter: She believes her husband, Sheldon, of 31 years is an imposter, despite recognizing him physically.
  • Root Cause: Her condition is related to perception disorder rather than a memory issue.
  • Challenges in Relationship: Kathy's syndrome strains her relationship with Sheldon, as she cannot recognize him as her real husband.
  • Treatment Resistance: Kathy is resistant to treatment, complicating efforts to manage her condition.

Terence Malson's Hallucinations: Terence experiences Charles Bonnet syndrome, causing him to see large, floating heads due to his retinitis pigmentosa, a condition that has severely diminished his sight, leading to visual hallucinations.

  • Hallucinations Description: He sees large, floating heads, a manifestation of his condition.
  • Underlying Cause: His hallucinations are due to retinitis pigmentosa, which severely impairs his sight.
  • Effect on Perception: These hallucinations significantly affect Terence's perception of his surroundings.

Philip's Unique Perception: Philip, affected by a car crash, has a rare condition where he cannot recognize living things, including animals and plants, due to damage in his brain's recognition areas.

  • Recognition Issue: He cannot identify animals and plants, even though he has perfect vision.
  • Brain Damage Impact: The condition is due to damage in brain areas responsible for recognizing living entities.
  • Daily Life Challenges: This rare and unique perception issue presents significant challenges in Philip's daily life, affecting how he interacts with his environment.

Sheldon and Kathy's Relationship: Despite Kathy's Capgras syndrome, they continue to live together. Sheldon seeks help from Dr. Morris Goldman, a neuropsychiatric disorder specialist, hoping for a breakthrough in Kathy's condition.

  • Capgras Syndrome Strain: Kathy's belief that Sheldon is an imposter, due to Capgras syndrome, strains their relationship.
  • Seeking Specialist Help: Sheldon consults Dr. Morris Goldman, a specialist in neuropsychiatric disorders, for Kathy's condition.
  • Hope for Treatment: Despite Kathy's resistance to treatment, Sheldon remains hopeful for a breakthrough that could improve her condition.

Dr. Goldman's Approach: Dr. Goldman suggests using oxytocin to treat Kathy. However, she is resistant and hostile to the idea of treatment, complicating efforts to help her.

  • Oxytocin Treatment Suggestion: Dr. Goldman proposes using oxytocin as a potential treatment for Kathy's Capgras syndrome.
  • Patient Resistance: Kathy is resistant and hostile towards the idea of treatment, complicating efforts to manage her condition.
  • Challenge in Treatment: Dr. Goldman faces the challenge of treating Kathy due to her reluctance, making it difficult to apply potentially beneficial therapies.


Losing Control

This video explores the lives of three individuals whose brain injuries or incidents have led to the emergence of compulsive behaviors. These compulsions profoundly impact their personal lives and relationships.The documentary begins by introducing viewers to three individuals whose brain injuries have led to intense and uncontrollable compulsions.

Heather Howland, after suffering a brain hemorrhage, develops hypersexuality, leading to risky sexual behaviors and straining her marriage.

  • Heather Howland experienced a significant change in behavior following a brain hemorrhage.
  • As a result of her brain injury, Heather developed an intense form of hypersexuality.
  • This newfound hypersexuality manifested in engaging in risky and uncharacteristic sexual behaviors.
  • Her compulsive behavior had a profound and challenging impact on her marital relationship.
  • The documentary specifically focuses on the effects of Heather's condition on her personal life and how it reshaped her interactions and self-perception.

John Sarkin, a former chiropractor, experiences a stroke after a neurosurgery, resulting in an obsessive compulsion for art and painting.

  • John Sarkin was a former chiropractor.
  • He experienced a stroke following a neurosurgery.
  • This incident led to a drastic change in his personality and behavior.
  • John developed an obsessive compulsion for art and painting.
  • The documentary highlights how this compulsion became a dominant aspect of his life, transforming his identity and daily routine.

Tony Cicoria, an orthopedic surgeon, is struck by lightning, which unexpectedly ignites a passionate obsession with piano music, despite having no prior musical training.

  • Tony Cicoria, an orthopedic surgeon, was struck by lightning.
  • This near-death experience unexpectedly ignited a deep obsession with piano music in him.
  • Prior to this incident, Tony had no formal musical training or significant interest in music.
  • The documentary delves into how this sudden passion for music profoundly altered his life and career path.
  • Tony's story in the documentary serves to illustrate the unpredictable and profound ways in which the brain can be affected by extraordinary events.


Losing Time

This covers the stories of individuals with neurological conditions affecting their perception of time. Here's a detailed summary:

  • Mohammed Dowd: A 44-year-old man with severe narcolepsy, experiencing sudden sleep attacks and cataplexy. His condition significantly impacts his daily life, making even simple tasks like going to shops risky. He uses science as a mental focus to manage emotional triggers that can exacerbate his condition. Mohammed's journey to the London Science Museum, a significant challenge for him, demonstrates his struggle and resilience.
    • Age and Condition: Mohammed Dowd is 44 years old and suffers from severe narcolepsy.
    • Symptoms: His condition includes sudden sleep attacks and cataplexy, causing muscle weakness triggered by emotions.
    • Impact on Life: These symptoms significantly disrupt his daily activities, making simple tasks risky.
    • Coping Mechanism: Mohammed uses a focus on science to manage his condition, particularly to control emotional triggers that can worsen his symptoms.
    • Challenge and Resilience: His visit to the London Science Museum exemplifies the difficulties he faces in everyday life and his determination to overcome them.
  • Alana Wong: An 18-year-old girl with a rare sleeping disorder, possibly Klein-Levin Syndrome. Her condition causes extended periods of sleep and altered behavior, affecting her memory and causing her to miss significant portions of her life. A brain scan reveals decreased blood flow in her thalamus during episodes, supporting her diagnosis. The condition has no known cure, but there's hope that her symptoms will diminish in adulthood.
    • Age and Disorder: Alana is 18 years old and suffers from a rare sleeping disorder, possibly Klein-Levin Syndrome.
    • Symptoms: She experiences prolonged sleep periods and altered behavior, impacting her memory and life experiences.
    • Effect on Life: Alana misses substantial life events due to her extended sleep episodes.
    • Medical Findings: Brain scans show reduced blood flow in her thalamus during episodes, supporting her diagnosis.
    • Outlook: There is no known cure for her condition, but there's hope her symptoms might lessen as she grows older.
  • Claire Rutherford: A mother who lost a substantial part of her memory (25-30 years) due to brain swelling caused by a common herpes virus. She suffers from retrograde amnesia, unable to recall her past life, including her children growing up. She attempts to reconstruct her past by gathering information from friends and acquaintances.
    • Condition: Claire suffers from retrograde amnesia due to brain swelling caused by a herpes virus.
    • Memory Loss: She lost about 25-30 years of her memory, unable to remember significant parts of her life, including her children growing up.
    • Reconstruction Efforts: Claire actively tries to reconstruct her past by gathering information from friends and acquaintances.
    • Impact on Personal Life: The amnesia has dramatically altered her understanding of her own life history and experiences.
  • Nicola Pomfret: Suffering from a memory condition after the herpes virus attacked her brain, Nicola can only retain short-term memories for about two minutes. She cannot form new long-term memories since her illness in 2003, leaving her effectively stuck in the present.
    • Condition: Nicola suffers from a severe memory condition following a herpes virus infection in her brain.
    • Memory Limitation: She can retain short-term memories for only about two minutes.
    • Long-term Memory Loss: Since her illness in 2003, Nicola has been unable to form new long-term memories.
    • Current Life Impact: This condition keeps her effectively living in the present, with no new permanent memories since the onset of her illness.